Immunization programs are vital and have helped the world to weed out various dreaded diseases by protecting entire populations. Successful campaigns across the world have helped to protect citizens from diseases that have in the past afflicted and wiped-out large sections of populations. These immunization programs are mainly funded, and carried out by global health bodies in collaboration with governments. The success of these programs hinges to a large extent on the timing of immunization. Here is important information about one such immunization, including DTaP vaccine side effects to help family members take the right steps and avoid possible undesirable effects.
Overview of the DTaP vaccine and purpose
DTAP is essentially an acronym that stands for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. These three diseases are life-threatening in nature and the vaccine is considered as important in the fight against dreaded illnesses.
Diphtheria is an infectious condition that spreads from individual to individual and when afflicted, the person can end up with various complications. This includes difficulty in breathing, possible paralysis and heart failure, with the possibility of a fatal condition not being ruled out.
Tetanus is serious bacterial condition that affects the central nervous system. It occurs when the individual suffers any injury or wound and is exposed to the bacteria that produce toxins. Infected individuals can end up with difficulty in swallowing, difficulty in breathing, and inability to open the mouth, in a condition known as lock jaw. There is also the possibility of the condition turning fatal in some instances.
Pertussis refers to whooping cough, and is also infectious in nature. This causes uncontrollable and often violent bouts of coughing, and it could make it difficult for the afflicted person to either breathe, or eat food, or drink water/liquids. This condition is known to be serious in young children, and can result in pneumonia, possible convulsions and brain damage. The eventuality of death cannot be ruled out in certain circumstances. The effects are slightly different in adults, but are nevertheless adverse in nature.
The DTaP vaccine comes in the form of a suspension, and it is important to note that DTaP and TDaP are not the same. The former is the immunization for various age groups, while the latter is a booster to increase the efficiency of the immunization. DTaP vaccine is intended for children below the age of seven. Typically, the DTaP vaccine is administered through five doses at various stages of the child’s life. For instance, the first dose is recommended when the child is 2 months old, the second when the child is 4 months old. The third dose is generally given when the child is between the age of 15 and 18 months. Finally, the fifth dose of DTaP vaccine is administered when the child attains the age of 4; it could also be given up to the age of 6 in children. The DTaP can be administered either as a separate vaccine, or it could also be combined with other vaccines as a combination vaccine. The vaccine is safe to be administered at the time other vaccines are given.
Precautions to be taken prior to the vaccination
The avoid the possibility of DTaP vaccine side effects, it is necessary to follow certain precautions. The vaccine is considered as relatively safe, and when compared with the possible outcomes in unvaccinated people, the effects are negligible. However, families are expected to take certain precautions to help guard against undesirable effects. For instance, a growing number of people all over the world are prone to allergic reactions. This could be in the form of allergies from food products, ingredients or compounds in medications, dyes, preservatives, animal dander, pollen etc. Individuals with a history of any allergic reactions are to seek medical advice and check for the possibility of allergy inducing properties in the vaccine.
The possibility of side effects has not been fully established in certain age groups. For instance, babies below the age of 6 weeks have not been a part of studies to document undesirable effects. Similarly, the effects of the vaccine on children above the age of seven have also not been documented. It is therefore necessary to seek medical advice on use of the vaccine on these age groups. Women with suckling infants are also advised to seek medical opinion about use of the vaccine. Appropriate studies have not been conducted to determine if the vaccine may pose health hazards on the infant. Women are expected to consider the expected outcomes, and the unknown effects to decide if the vaccine is safe at that point of time.
Precautions for elderly individuals
The vaccine is not recommended for use by geriatric patients, due to various reasons. This includes lack of adequate information about the safety and efficacy of the vaccine on elderly patients.
Interactions of the vaccine with other substances and medications
Interactions of medications with other medications are common and cannot be ruled out. This is because of the conflict in the mechanisms of action of the two drugs, or it could also be attributed to the properties of the compounds or ingredients. Possible outcomes of drug interactions include increased potency in either of the two drugs, or it could also cause a reduction in potency of either of the two drugs. Another possible outcome of drug interactions is an aggravation of the side effects of either of the two medications, or both the medications. These interactions are also possible between vaccines and other medications.
For instance, individuals who are on medications that are intended to weaken the immune response system may experience lesser potency of the vaccines. Therefore, patients who have received an organ transplant may end up with the effects of interactions when vaccinated. Interactions are not limited to drugs and medications, but could also extend to supplements and herbal remedies. Patients are expected to inform healthcare providers of present medications and conditions being treated.
Impact of the vaccine on patients with certain conditions
Patients diagnosed with certain medical conditions are likely to experience undesirable outcomes and it is important for patients to clearly list out the same. For instance, patients with bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia or thrombocytopenia are not to take the vaccine, due to the possible effects. Similarly, patients diagnosed with brain conditions like encephalopathy may end up in a coma, or could experience lowered consciousness when administered with the vaccine. Other effects also include seizures of a lengthy duration.
Other effects that make the individual unsuitable to receive the vaccine include Guillain-Barre syndrome. This refers to a nerve disease that is known to causes paralysis in the patient. This could interact with the tetanus protection of the vaccine, and it is recommended that specific medical advice is obtained before administering the vaccine. Patients with immunodeficiency disorders are also not to be administered the vaccine, while individuals with a weak immune system are likely to receive lesser than desired results from the vaccine. Patients diagnosed with progressive neurologic disorder are not to be administered the vaccine till the condition is treated effectively. Symptoms that are indicative of this condition include spasms, seizures and brain disease that is progressive in nature.
Patients sensitized to the vaccine
As the vaccine is recommended to be taken in multiple doses, it is necessary to avoid subsequent doses if any previous dosage has resulted in DTaP vaccine side effects. For instance, a patient who has experienced any side effect in the first or second dose is not to be administered further doses, as this may actually cause a stronger reaction, after the initial reaction or sensitization. Reactions that may be witnessed include lowered levels of consciousness, abnormally increased crying, fever and possible seizures. All of this needs to be monitored and is indicative of strong reactions to the vaccine.
Not to be given during an active infection of Diphtheria, Pertussis or Tetanus
It is necessary to note that the standard rule of vaccines would apply to the DTaP vaccine. Immunization is protection from or against a condition that has not yet affected a patient. An individual who is presently afflicted with the condition is not to be administered the vaccine as it would not deliver any desired results. The condition is to be treated with a suitable line of treatment.
Monitor for specific effects
As outlined above, it is possible that the vaccine may cause undesirable effects, It is therefore necessary for caregivers or parents to observe and monitor for tell tale signs of effects. For instance, children who have received a vaccine are to be observed for any signs of weakness in the arms or the legs. This could be an indication of Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Other effects that need to be monitored or checked include seizures, a reddish appearance or swelling at the site of injection. Patients are likely to end up with sudden bouts of apnea wherein breathing may abnormally stop for a short period.
Commonly reported undesirable effects of the DTaP vaccine
Effects that have been commonly reported among the vaccinated include a sudden state of shock in the patient. High grade fever, above 102.2 F is another possible outcome. Other recorded though not frequent outcomes include pain in the back, or discoloration of feces. The patient may also end up with agitated behavior. Bleeding from the gums has also been reported in a small section of vaccinated individuals. Other possible effects include discoloration of the skin, a tender or tingling sensation at the site of injection, and possible symptoms similar to hives.
Certain effects may not require medical attention and may resolve naturally in a few days. However, certain effects that are persistent in nature or intense, may require some kind of medical attention. Urine may also appear discolored with traces of blood. The color of the nails, the lips, and the palms may appear get a bluish tinge. Vision could also be affected when on the medication, while some patients may end up confused, while others may experience hallucinations and a fast pace of heartbeat. Voice may sound hoarse, while many are known to appear irritated easily. Other physical conditions include stiffness in the joints, or pain or swelling in the joints.