Treatment for acne includes the use of topical medications called retinoids that are essentially derivatives of Vitamin A. Patients with different skin conditions often find it difficult to make a choice between different topical applications. This is sometimes due to lack of awareness about the mechanism of action or subtle differences in strength or composition of topical applications that are almost similar in composition. Following subsections offer an in-depth look at two medications, offering answers to the question Is tazarotene better than tretinoin? This will help individuals take informed decisions about the right medication.
What is acne?
A common skin condition, acne occurs when hair follicles are clogged with oil, dead skin cells, and bacteria. It typically manifests as pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads on the face, chest, back, and shoulders. Acne is attributed to various reasons, including hormonal changes, genetics, stress, and effects of medications. It is known to occur commonly during adolescence, but is also known to affect individuals across all age groups. Different types of acne, include:
- Comedonal acne – best identified by the presence of blackheads and whiteheads
- Inflammatory acne – with distinct red, swollen, and tender pimples
- Cystic acne – aggravated form of inflammatory acne with large, painful cysts and nodules under the skin
Treatment options for acne
Treatment options include topical creams and gels, oral antibiotics, and hormonal therapies. Lifestyle changes are also expected from individuals such as maintaining a healthy diet, practicing good skincare habits, and managing stress – as this helps improve acne. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and the individual’s skin type and medical history. Common treatment options include:
#1 Topical medications: This includes benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, retinoids and antibiotics, applied directly on the skin to reduce inflammation, unclog pores, and kill bacteria.
#2 Oral medications: Antibiotics and hormonal therapies reduce inflammation and regulate hormone levels in the body.
#3 Chemical peels: Exfoliation of dead skin cells and unclogging of pores with the application of a chemical peel in a healthcare setting. Although also available as OTC products, it is safe to use the services of a specialist.
#4 Light therapy: Effective in killing bacteria and reducing inflammation in the skin.
Healthcare providers are best qualified to determine the best treatment plan, as some medications and treatments can have side effects or interactions with other medications.
Is tazarotene better than tretinoin?
It is now time to answer the above question. There is no clear answer if tazarotene is better than tretinoin, as both belong to the same class of medications known as retinoids, and are effective in treating acne and other skin conditions. However, tazarotene has been shown to have a slightly stronger affinity for certain retinoic acid receptors, making it more effective in some cases. To its advantage, tretinoin has more clinical data to support its efficacy and safety, and is available in an extensive range of strengths and formulations. This makes it more versatile in terms of treating different types of acne and skin conditions. Efficacy will also depend on other factors, including skin type and medical history, and severity of acne.
What is Tazarotene?
Let’s take a deeper look at each of the two medications. This is a prescription topical medication to treat acne, psoriasis, and other skin conditions. Available in gel, cream, and foam formulations, this is typically applied once a day in the evening. It may cause skin irritation and sun sensitivity, and women who are pregnant or planning a pregnancy are not to use tazarotene due to the risk of birth defects.
Mechanism of action of Tazarotene
It works by binding to specific receptors in the skin cells called retinoic acid receptors, and it selectively activates RAR beta and gamma, involved in regulating the growth and differentiation of skin cells. By binding to these receptors, tazarotene normalizes the growth and turnover of skin cells, reducing inflammation. It also prevents formation of new comedones apart from reducing the size and number of existing comedones. In addition to the above effects, tazarotene has anti-inflammatory effects, helping reduce redness and swelling associated with acne. Overall, the mechanism of action of tazarotene is the ability to regulate growth of skin cells, reduce inflammation, and prevent formation of new comedones.
What is tretinoin?
This is also a prescription topical medication to treat acne, with effects on fine wrinkles, sun damage, and other signs of skin aging. Available in cream, gel, and liquid formulations, this is also applied once a day in the evening, similar to tazarotene. It may also cause skin irritation, dryness, and sun sensitivity, and pregnant women or women planning a pregnancy are not to use tretinoin due to the risk of birth defects.
Mechanism of action of tretinoin
As a topical retinoid medication, it works by binding to specific receptors in the skin cells called retinoic acid receptors RARs. This is also similar to the mechanism of action of tazarotene. The medication selectively activates RAR beta and gamma, responsible for regulating the growth and differentiation of skin cells. Through the binding action with these receptors, tretinoin normalizes the growth and turnover of skin cells and reduces inflammation. It is also known to prevent the formation of new comedones apart from reducing the size and number of existing comedones. It is also known to have a positive impact on appearance, by minimizing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. It is also known to have additional effects such as anti-inflammatory effects; and this is responsible for reducing redness and swelling associated with acne.
Possible side effects of both medications
While both medications are considered safe, there is a possible of side effects, as listed below.
- Skin irritation: Redness, peeling, dryness, and itching of the skin.
- Sun sensitivity and increased risk of sunburn
- Skin discoloration: Temporary changes in skin pigmentation – darkening/lightening of the skin.
- Swelling: Swelling or blistering of the skin (rare in occurrence).
- Allergic reactions: Symptoms such as hives, itching, or difficulty breathing indicate allergies.
Most effects are typically mild and resolve naturally, however, severe or persistent side effects require medical assessment and treatment.