Extended-release medication for hypertension : metoprolol succinate side effects
Desired outcomes of treatment for hypertension and cardiomyopathy include a reduction in heart rate and cardiac output. Individuals with the condition typically expect outcomes when on prescribed medication and recommended lifestyle changes that include exercises. A reduction in systolic blood pressure levels and prevention of different types of induced tachycardia are other desired outcomes of medication. Metoprolol succinate, as a beta1 selective adrenergic receptor blocking agent is known to bring about the above desired outcomes. Here is a detailed look at metoprolol succinate side effects and effective methods to mitigate the same.
Drug overview and metoprolol succinate side effects
Before we look at metoprolol succinate side effects here is a look at detailed information about the drug and the mechanism of action. Belonging to the category of selective beta-1 blocker, the extended-release formulation helps deliver the desired bioavailability of the medication. It is regarded as one of the most popular beta-blockers for the treatment of angina, myocardial infarction, hypertension and heart failure among other conditions, including atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. The medication is also known to be used for off-label purposes that include overactive thyroid and supraventricular tachycardia.
The medication is used to treat conditions classified as cardiovascular disease, that impact functions related to the heart and blood vessels. A similar formulation metoprolol tartrate is used for treating similar conditions. Most conditions are attributed genetic reasons, while many patients develop the condition due to lifestyle choices including smoking and lack of proper exercise. Many patients develop the condition as a result of obesity and improper dietary preferences, while diabetics also develop the condition as a comorbidity. Mortality rates associated with the condition are largely attributed to the cardiovascular conditions. It is time to learn a little more about the mechanism of action of the medication before looking at metoprolol succinate side effects.
Mechanism of action of metoprolol succinate
The medication works by a controlled release of metoprolol that delivers the desired dosages over an extended period. The drug’s inhibitive action reduces cardiac activity, and this action is attributed to the production of negative chronotropic and inotropic effects. The combination of these effects helps bring down the cardiac output and heart rate which in turns helps negate the effects of hypertension and cardiovascular related conditions. The medication is fully absorbed in the GI tract and within a period of 20 minutes to one hour after oral intake, the maximum concentration levels are achieved, helping the individual receive the benefits of the mechanism of action and the properties of the medication.
General precautions to avoid metoprolol succinate side effects
It is essential to follow certain precautions to avoid metoprolol succinate side effects. Individuals on the medication who suddenly stop taking the medication are at risk of experiencing certain effects that include an increase in blood pressure levels and potential damage to blood vessels. Untreated hypertension could lead to damage to organs that include the lungs, the heart or the liver. Individuals who abruptly stop the medication are also at elevated risk of a heart attack. Individuals on the medication are advised not to stop the drug abruptly, immediately after a heart attack, or when experiencing chest pain, as this could lead to complications. The medication is to taken/stopped only with the specific medical advice and recommendations of the treating specialist. Certain metoprolol succinate side effects are due to missed or skipped doses. For instance, a missed dose may result in fluctuating blood pressure levels, and this could in turn increase the risk of heart attacks in patients.
Metoprolol succinate side effects as a result of overdose
Many serious and moderate metoprolol succinate side effects are attributed to overdose or excessive dosage of the medication. It is important to ensure that the levels of the drug in the body do not cross levels that are considered as dangerous. There are clear indications of an overdose and it is vital for patients to take suitable remedial actions. For instance, there is the possibility of patients developing low blood pressure as a result of excessive dosage. Similarly, there is the possibility of individuals ending up with changes in heart rhythm, as a result of overdose. Patients may have bouts of vomiting or experience nausea if dosage exceeds the prescribed limits.
Metoprolol succinate side effects : possible allergies
Metoprolol succinate side effects include the possibility of allergies. For instance, patients may experience difficulty while breathing, when on the medication. This is an indication of allergic reactions, and needs to be resolved accordingly. Other possible allergic reactions include swelling int eh throat or the tongue, and these manifestations require suitable medical attention. Individuals with a history of allergies to the medication or the active ingredients are advised to avoid the medical, or take it only under medical supervision. There are possibilities of serious reactions that may end up as medical emergencies.
Pre-existing conditions and possibilities of metoprolol succinate side effects
Individuals with certain pre-existing conditions are advised to avoid the medication to prevent metoprolol succinate side effects. In certain instances, suitable precautions and medical supervision may be necessary to prevent or mitigate metoprolol succinate side effects. Individuals with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are advised to avoid metoprolol, and only in special cases, patients may be permitted to take the medication under medical supervision. When taken in large amounts there is the possibility of blockage of the receptors in the airways that are responsible for breathing. Consequently, there is the possibility of narrowed passages that will aggravate respiratory ailments such as asthma, COPD.
Similarly, metoprolol succinate side effects include possible aggravation of conditions of individuals with diabetes. One of the outcomes of metoprolol includes a reduction in heart rate and reduction of vigors (tremors). These are desired outcomes if the medication. Unfortunately, these symptoms are also indications of low blood sugar levels. When the symptoms are controlled, individuals may be unable to identify when blood sugar levels drop. This may pose a problem and may affect patients with pre-existing diabetes. Similarly, individuals with poor blood circulation may also experience complications as a result of the medication. To put it clearly, the outcome of the medication is a lowering of the blood pressure, and this will complicate the condition of individuals with low blood pressure levels. Patients will receive lesser blood to various part of the body/limbs and this will have an impact on overall health.
Metoprolol succinate side effects on pregnant women
As the medication belongs to the C category of pregnancy drugs, it effectively means that there is a possibility of an impact on the fetus. Laboratory studies have recorded adverse effects on the fetus of animals when the drug was administered. While adequate studies have not been performed on humans, the basis of the findings on animals are taken as a caution and this may affect the child in the womb. Pregnant mothers with high blood pressure levels are advised to look at suitable options to lower blood pressure levels. Similarly, to avoid metoprolol succinate side effects on nursing mothers, it is necessary to avoid taking the drug or see specific medical recommendations on the same. The medication is known to pass on from the mother to the chid through breast milk and this may result in undesirable consequences in children.
General instructions on taking the medication
General instructions on taking the medication help to avoid metoprolol succinate side effects. For instance, elderly patients are typically recommended smaller initial doses that are then increased gradually. This helps combat side effects that are typically experienced by first time users, especially when administered large doses. The drug is considered as safe for children, as the extended-release version will gradually release the doses and ensure that the bio-availability is not more than the desired levels. Since metoprolol succinate is the extended- release formulation, it is considered as safe for children. However, any immediate release formulation is generally regarded as unsafe for children, as the levels of the drug may be more than the required or desired levels.
Ideal dosage of the medication
As mentioned above, many metoprolol succinate side effects are attributed to incorrect dosage and manner of taking the medication. It is of critical importance to follow dosage recommendations diligently. All recommendations are based on factors such as the age of the recipient, the specific condition of the patients, the intensity of the condition, prevalence of other pre-existing medical conditions, and the response of the patient to the first dose. The ideal dosages mentioned here are only for the purpose of reference and the actual dose will be determined by the treating specialist based on diagnosis and medical history as mentioned above. The medication is available in strengths of 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg immediate release formulations.
#1 High blood pressure – the ideal dosage for adult patients with high blood pressure is an initial dose anywhere between 25 mg to 100mg per day, which may be gradually increased. The upper limit of dosage is not to exceed 400 mg per day under any circumstance. Children below the age of seventeen years are to be administered an initial daily dosage that is typically calculated as 1mg per kilogram of body weight. The maximum dosage is not to exceed 2gm per kilogram of body weight. Elderly patients are generally started off on a lower dosage, as the ability to process the drug is compromised with advancing age.
#2 Angina or chest pain – the ideal dosage for adults with angina is around 100 mg per day which is gradually increased, where the upper limit is not to exceed 400 mg per day. The ideal dosage of the medication for youngsters below the age of 18 with angina, has not been established yet.
#3 Immediately after heart attack – when administered for patients immediately after a heart attack, the ideal dosage is 50 mg four times a day in the period after the attack. This is generally continued for two days, following which the dose is changed to 100 mg two times per day. Suitable dosages of the medication for youngsters below the age of 18 in such instances, have not been established yet.