Hypertension is one of the most common conditions among adults in the US, with an estimated 47% of the adult population classified as hypertensive. In addition to hypertension, adults are also afflicted with other heart related conditions. For instance, angina is another condition with a prevalence rate of around 15% among men and women. Various medications are presently recommended for use by individuals diagnosed with the conditions, including combination medications. Toprol XL figures on the list of medications that are considered as effective for treating the above conditions. This in-depth look about the mechanism of action, absorption and toprol xl side effects will help patients overcome apprehensions about the drug, and follow the right precautions.
Overview of Toprol XL
Toprol XL is the branded form of metoprolol succinate, and is the extended-release version of the medication. It is typically prescribed for treating patients with congestive heart failure, chest pain that is chronic (also typically known as angina) and high blood pressure. It is also regarded as an effective medication for bringing down the mortality rate among patients with myocardial infarction. Belonging to the category of beta-blockers, it is typically categorized into two different derivative forms – succinate and tartrate. In use since approval more than four decades ago, it is regarded as a reliable beta blocker and is also rated as one of the preferred beta-blockers in various nations globally.
Mechanism of action and absorption
The mechanism of action is attributed to the properties of the medication as a beta-1 adrenergic receptor inhibitor. This does not extend any effect on beta-2 receptors, making it an effective option with targeted and desired outcomes. The actions result in a decrease in cardiac output, without any impact on other functions. The absorption of the medication is another reason for its effectiveness. On being administered in oral form, the gastrointestinal tract completely absorbs the medication, and this in turn results in maximum availability of the serum concentration in less than two hours. When administered intravenously, the time taken for achieving maximum serum concentration is further reduced to twenty minutes.
Important information about medication and its use
When the medication is administered intravenously, the bioavailability is 100%, whereas when the drug is administered intravenously, the bioavailability is around 50%. Specialists recommend oral forms of the medication to be along with food. There are two distinct reasons for this advice. When taken along with food, the absorption levels of the medication increase significantly, helping deliver better outcomes. The other reason is the possibility of nausea among patients taking the medication. To avoid feelings of nausea, especially among first time users of the medication, the drug is typically taken either with food or immediately after a meal.
Regulatory warning about the drug
The FDA classifies drugs and issues regulatory notifications about the safety of medications. This effectively is intended to serve as a note of caution for healthcare professionals, care givers and patients, offering information about possible side effects. A black box warning is effectively the most serious level of caution and is therefore to be used only as per the directions of the specialist. The medication is not to be stopped suddenly as this may trigger undesirable effects. Doctors generally taper down the strengths before discontinuation of the medication. Individuals who stop the medication suddenly may generally experience discomfort and pain in the chest. This could also end up with an increase in blood pressure levels and in some cases could also trigger a heart attack.
Ideal dosages of the medication for various conditions
Most unwanted toprol xl side effects are attributed to incorrect dosage or use of medications. The possibility of stronger effects or serious outcomes can be mitigated or prevented by following dosage instructions for specific conditions. Here is a compilation of recommended dosages for various conditions. it is to be borne in mind that this is a compilation of reference information and the actual dosage may differ from person to person, depending on various factors. For instance, the severity of the condition, the age of the patient, gender of the patient, existence of other conditions, and the use of other medications that may cause drug interactions.
#1 Hypertensive patients
Toprol XL is available in strengths of 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg and adult patients with hypertension are typically recommended an initial dosage between 25 to 100 mg per day, to be taken in one dose. Depending on the condition, this is increased gradually, subject to a maximum of 400 mg per day. Dosages of other forms of the medication differ in terms of strength and frequency of use. Children between the ages of 6 and 17 years are generally recommended a dosage of 1 mg for every kilogram of body weight, per day, and increased gradually, depending on the condition. The maximum initial dosage is not to exceed 50 mg per day, while the maximum permitted dosage after gradual increase is not to exceed 200 mg or 2mg for every kilo of body weight.
#2 Patients diagnosed with angina
Adults between the ages of 18 and 64 years are generally recommended an initial dose of 100 mg per day, with a gradual increase as required. The maximum dosage is not to exceed 400 mg per day, to avoid the possibility of adverse effects. The effect of the medication on children below the age of 18 is yet to be determined and therefore the actual dosage may differ from patient to patient depending on a host of factors, including assessment of the condition.
#3 Heart failure
The recommended dosage for patients with heart failure of NYHA Class II category is 25 mg per day taken for a period of two weeks. The dosage is modified to a lower dose of 12.5 mg per day for patients with classified with severe conditions. This dose is typically, gradually increased through a maintenance dose, subject to a maximum dosage of 200 mg daily. The efficacy or safety of the medication for use in children below the ages of a8 years has not been determined as yet. Therefore, the actual dosage for these categories is as per specific conditions and assessment.
#4 Dosage recommendations for aged patients and individuals with liver ailments
As the ability of the body of aged patients to process the drug is limited, the amount of drug in the body may increase, resulting in possible side effects. It is therefore necessary to start off on a lower dose and gradually increase with constant monitoring. Similarly, patients with liver conditions are likely to experience the effects of poor processing of the drug. It is therefore necessary to specifically intimate specialists about liver conditions, if any, or undergo necessary liver function tests, before taking the medication.
Commonly reported toprol xl side effects
Undesirable outcomes of medications are common to all medications. Contrary to common perceptions, side effects of medications are not necessarily experienced by all users of the medication. Sections of users may experience certain effects, while others may experience other effects. The intensity of the effects may also differ within sections of users for the same effects. Similarly, the duration of the effects may also be experienced differently by users. It is also important to add that certain users may not experience any effects whatsoever. Depending on the intensity, and/or the persistent nature of the effects, it may be necessary to seek medical intervention. Here is a compilation of possible undesirable outcomes of the medication that may be experienced by users.
Effects considered as relatively common
Patients are likely to experience some kind of tiredness or fatigue when on the medication. This could be accompanied at times with dizzy sensations. Other effects that are relatively common in occurrence include possible constipation among users. A contrary effect is also possible with some users ending up with diarrhea. The effects of the medication may also extend to other areas of routine, such as the interest of the patient in indulging in sex.
Patients are also known to report an abnormal shortness of breath, and could sometimes exhibit wheezing like symptoms. Cough is another possible outcome of the medication. Visible or discernible symptoms such as the outbreak of rashes are also another possibility linked to the drug. Among the common effects, one effect may require medical attention to prevent aggravation. A sudden dip in heart beat rate below the normal or average heart rate is a possible effect, and this requires medical intervention.
Effects considered as serious in nature warranting attention
Patients on the medication may sometimes be exposed to serious side effects, that may sometimes require medical attention or intervention. It is important to identify symptoms of effects that are regarded as serious in nature and take suitable remedial action. Hypotension or a sudden dip in blood pressure levels is a possible undesirable outcome of the medication. This condition requires medical attention, and symptoms that are indicative of this condition include dizziness that is abnormal and severe in nature. A light headed feeling is another possible adverse outcome, that may be experienced by the patient.
Other symptoms include the possibility of fainting, and limb extremities that suddenly turn cold. Patients who experience fatigue that worsens with each day are expected to seek medical attention at the earliest. Toprol XL side effects may also extend to behavior, with some patents likely to end up with depression or feelings of anxiety for no specific reason. Patients are known lose interest in activities that were earlier interesting and involving in nature. Similarly, the medication could also trigger an impact on dietary intake of the patient, and this may have an effect on overall health of the individual.